The Empire of Japan (大日本帝國, Dai Nippon Teikoku, literally "Great Japanese Empire"), more commonly known as Japan, Japanese Empire and/or Imperial Japan, is an empire and global superpower located in East Asia, formed on 3 January 1868 during the Meiji Restoration. Its capital is Tokyo, which is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the largest metropolitan area in the world, with circa 50 million residents. Other major metropolitan areas that are also among the world's largest includes the Greater Jakarta Area with over 35 million residents, the Greater Manila Area with 33 million residents, Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe) with 30 million residents, the Greater Pyongyang Area and the Greater Seoul Area with over 25 million residents, the Greater Chūkyō Area (Nagoya) with 10 million residents and the Greater Fukuoka-Kitakyushu Area (Fukuoka-Kitakyushu) with 6 million residents.
The Empire of Japan's rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei (富国強兵, "Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Army") led to its emergence as a world power, eventually culminating in its membership in the Axis Powers and the conquest of most of the Asia-Pacific region. During World War II, Empire of Japan emerged as a global industrial and military superpower, and fought the United States in the Pacific War, the largest theatre of World War II. After the United States's surrender, the Empire of Japan withdrew from the Axis Powers and invaded Nazi Germany. World War II ended with the fall of Berlin and the atomic bombings of Dresden and Hamburg. Empire of Japan and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union (USSR) emerged as the only two superpowers after the war, and engaged each other in the Cold War, which also began with the Soviet-Japanese War and the Third Sino-Japanese War. Since the late 1990s, the Empire of Japan have been the world's largest empire in human history and is now the world's foremost superpower.
A major economic superpower, the Empire of Japan is the world's largest single national economy, and is one of the largest producers of fossil fuels in the world. It is also the world's largest exporter of goods, as well as the largest importer in the world. The Imperial Japanese Armed Forces is the largest and most powerful military force in the world, with the world's largest navy and the world's second largest air force. Empire of Japan is a recognized global superpower with the world's largest nominal military budget, and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction in the world, only rivaled by the Union of Sovereign Socialist States of the Soviet Union.