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Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) is the capital city of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the second largest city in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic after the national capital city of Moscow with 10,540,000 people as of 2020, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city) and classified as a megacity. It is located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. It was known as Saint Petersburg from 1703 to 1914, when the name of the city was changed from Saint Petersburg to Petrograd (Russian: Петроград), and in 1924 it was changed to Leningrad. Population: 10,540,000 (2020 Census); 9,090,000 (2010 Census); 8,660,000 (2002 Census); 8,035,200 (1990 Census).

Leningrad was founded as Saint Petersburg by the Tsar Peter the Great on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703. Between 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the imperial capital of Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved from Saint Petersburg (then named Petrograd) to Moscow. Leningrad is the second largest city in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union with over ten million people, and is only one of two cities in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union classified as a megacity, along with Moscow. Leningrad is a major European cultural center, and also an important Soviet port on the Baltic Sea.

Leningrad is often described as the most Western city of the Soviet Union, as well as its cultural capital. It is the world's northernmost megacity, and the northenmost city in the world with a population of over ten million. The Historic Centre of Leningrad and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Leningrad is also home to The Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. A large number of foreign consulates, international corporations, banks, and other businesses are located in Leningrad. Some of the tallest skyscrapers in Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union outside of Baku and Moscow, the 1,001-meters (3,303 feet) Lakhta Center 3, the 703-meters (2,306 feet) Lakhta Center 2, the 463-meters (1,519 feet) Lakhta Center, the 403-meters (1,322 feet) Okhta Center and the 396-meters (1,299 feet) Okhta Center 2, are all located in Gazprom City, the new central business district (CBD) located just outside the historical centre of Leningrad. Gazprom City is the second largest and the second most important central business district in the country, after the Moscow International Business Center (Moscow-City) in Moscow and just ahead of Yekaterinburg-City in Yekaterinburg.

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